Slow modes of a uniform-density toroid.

(A) The first mode is a two-fold degenerate bending of the toroid. The centroids are colored blue to red to indicate increasing mobility. (B) The second mode is a two-fold degenerate stretching of the toroid. (C) The third mode is a non-degenerate rolling mode. The centroids here are colored from blue to red as a function of initial distance from the center of the toroid. The mass centroids on the top (visible) surface move along the toroid surface toward the central channel, and the centroids on the opposite side move away from the central channel toward the toroid perimeter. (D) Mode 6 is a non-degenerate dilation.




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