GAG contributes to blood-brain barrier penetration in mice in vivo.

Attenuated GBS adhesion (A, C) and invasion (B, D) to primary mBMECs from Ext2 heterozygous mice (ext2 hets) and Ndst1-deficient mice. For adherence, bacteria were enumerated after 30 min of incubation, whereas invasion was quantified after 2 h of incubation with mBMECs and 2 h of incubation with antibiotics to kill extracellular bacteria. Comparison of bacterial counts (expressed in cfu) recovered from the brain (E), blood (F), and spleen (G) of WT mice and Ext2 hets 24 h after intravenous challenge with 108 cfu of A909. (H) Brain bacterial counts were corrected for blood contamination (brain/blood ratio) using the blood concentration and a conservative estimate of the mouse cerebral blood volume (2.5 ml per 100 g tissue). Results pool the data from two independent experiment with final numbers of n = 12 for WT and n = 11 for Ext2 het. Each circle denotes 1 mouse. Statistics analysis was performed by Student's t test (A–D) or Mann-Whitney test (E–H). *p<0.05.