Cardiovascular therapy use, modification, and in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19: A cohort study
To assess the associations of exposure and modifications in exposure (i.e., discontinuation on admission, initiation during hospitalization) to eight common cardiovascular therapies with the risk of in-hospital death among inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
In this observational study including 838 hospitalized unvaccinated adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, the use of cardiovascular therapies was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.
No cardiovascular therapy used before hospitalization was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. During hospitalization, the use of diuretics (aOR 2.59 [1.68–3.98]) was associated with an increase, and the use of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system (aOR 0.39 [0.23–0.64]) and lipid-lowering agents (aOR 0.41 [0.24–0.68]) was associated with a reduction in the odds of in-hospital death. Exposure modifications associated with decreased survival were the discontinuation of an agent acting on the renin-angiotensin system (aOR 4.42 [2.08–9.37]), a β-blocker (aOR 5.44 [1.16–25.46]), a lipid-modifying agent (aOR 3.26 [1.42–7.50]) or an anticoagulant (aOR 5.85 [1.25–27.27]), as well as the initiation of a diuretic (aOR 5.19 [2.98–9.03]) or an antiarrhythmic (aOR 6.62 [2.07–21.15]). Exposure modification associated with improved survival was the initiation of an agent acting on the renin-angiotensin system (aOR 0.17 [0.03–0.82]).
In hospitalized and unvaccinated patients with COVID-19, there was no detrimental association of the prehospital use of any regular cardiovascular medication with in-hospital death, and these therapies should be continued as recommended.