Treatment groups and mass-specific intake.
(A) Experimental design. Lifespans are represented by horizontal bars divided into six instars and an adult stage. Time is not to scale, and differences in timing of life-history transitions between groups are not graphically presented. Vertical lines in juvenile stages denote ecdyses. White bars represent life stages when food was offered ad libitum (U, unlimited access to food). Shaded bars represent life stages when food was limited (L) to 60% of the amount of food consumed by insects in group UUU on a percent body mass basis. Because survival to first oviposition was low for insects that were food-limited for the duration of juvenile development, we were unable to test the effects of a diet switch from L to U at first oviposition (LLU). Sample sizes reflect the number of individuals present in each treatment group at the beginning of the trial. (B) Daily mass-specific dry matter intake (g/g/day). Curves were constructed by scaling the duration of each stage for each insect to the average duration of that stage for each treatment group and fitting a loess smoothing function to these data. Points where mass-specific intake declined to zero correspond to ecdyses. The first six time intervals represent juvenile stages; the final time interval represents the adult stage. Arrowheads denote the average age at first oviposition. Mass-specific intake for UUU insects declined after first oviposition. The amount of food offered to food-limited adults after first oviposition was decreased proportionally to match this decline. Sample sizes: UUU n = 13, ULL n = 13, UUL n = 13, LLL n = 19 juveniles and 7 adults, LUU n = 12.