The similar DNA methylation pattern on the Y chromosome among different geographic subgroups of haplogroup O2*.

A) Geographic distribution of 28 haplogroup O2* individuals. B) Heat map showing the methylation level of the Y chromosome in each sample. Each row line represents a single site, with each vertical line showing the β-value obtained in each individual sample. DNA methylation level is colored from orange to red to indicate low to high. C) The DNA methylation level is shown around the annotated genes and CpG Islands of the Y chromosome. D) Bar graphs showing the distribution of hyper-, intermediate-, and hypo-methylation sites on the Y chromosome in each haplogroup O2* sample.