The potential landscapes for the predation, competition and mutualism models.

Top row: The population potential landscape ((A) predation model. (B) competition model. (C) mutualism model.) Purple arrows represent the flux velocity() while the black arrows represent the negative gradient of population potential(). Bottom row: The potential intrinsic energy landscape . ((D) predation model. (E) competition model. (F) mutualism model.). Purple arrows represent the intrinsic flux velocity() while the black arrows represent the negative gradient of intrinsic potential().