Th1-type related cytokine expression in the duodenum of T. spiralis infected hamsters at 5 days pi.

Cytokine production was determined by immunocytochemistry and quantitation of its expression was measured as the fluorescence intensity of various cytokines in the small intestine of hamsters subjected to different treatments. Fluorescence intensity data are presented as mean +/− standard deviation. One-way ANOVA. N = 6−9. *** = P<0.001, * = P<0.05.