Increased expression of pattern recognition receptors on APCs from HIV-infected patients.

(A) Heatmap and (B) fold changes of PRR gene expression in isolated CD11c+ APCs from HIV-infected patients were compared to HIV-negative controls (HIV− n = 4, HIV+ n = 4) using DNA microarray analysis. P values determined by unpaired t test (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001). (C) Representative flow cytometry histograms of TLR2 expression of APCs from HIV-negative controls (black) and HIV+ patients (gray). (D) Median fluorescence intensity of TLR2 expression of APCs from HIV-negative controls (n = 20) and HIV-infected patients (n = 46). (E) Representative flow cytometry histograms of CD36 expression of APCs from HIV-negative controls (black) and HIV+ patients (gray). (F) Median fluorescence intensity of CD36 expression of APCs from HIV-negative controls (n = 20) and HIV-infected patients (n = 46). (G) Frequencies of APCs from HIV-infected patients (n = 7) producing IL-6, IL-12/IL23p40, and TNFα in response to L. plantarum WCFS1 with or without TLR2 blocking antibody. (H) Concentrations of IL-6, IL-12/IL-23p40, and TNFα following stimulation with L. plantarum WCFS1 with or without TLR2 blocking antibody as determined by ELISA (HIV+ n = 3–6). Each dot represents an individual subject. In the HIV+ group, open circles represent therapy-naïve patients, closed circles represent patients on HAART. Bars indicate median value. Bar graphs represent mean +/− SEM. P values determined using Mann Whitney U test or paired t test.