Full- length ATHB17 protein functions as transcriptional repressor and ATHB17Δ113 can relieve repression caused by full-length ATHB17 protein.

Maize mesophyll protoplasts were transformed (A) with 4 µg cells of reporter (Class II::GUS, Class I::GUS or No BS::GUS) and 0–5 µg cells of effector (Full-length ATHB17) or 5 µg of ATHB17Δ113 and Renilla luciferase (B) with 4 µg reporter (Class II::GUS, Class I::GUS or No BS::GUS), 0–5 µg ATHB17Δ113, and 0 (grey bars) or 0.2 µg (blue bars) of ATHB17 full length. DNA amounts are per 320,000 cells. After 18 h, cells were assayed for GUS and luciferase expression. GUS values were divided by luciferase internal control values for each well and normalized to respective GFP samples. Bars are means and error bars represent 1 SD.