Enhanced inflammatory response by APCs from HIV-infected patients to commensal lactobacilli.

(A) Representative flow cytometry plots of APCs producing proinflammatory cytokines in response to L. plantarum WCFS1. (B) Frequencies of APCs from HIV-negative controls (n = 29) and HIV-infected patients (n = 62) producing IL-6, IL-12/IL-23p40, and TNFα in response to L. plantarum WCFS1 determined by multicolor flow cytometry. (C) Concentrations of IL-6, IL-12/IL-23p40, and TNFα following stimulation with L. plantarum WCFS1 as determined by ELISA (HIV− n = 4; HIV+ n = 10). Frequencies of APCs from HIV-negative controls (n = 14) and HIV-infected patients (n = 23) producing IL-6, IL-12/IL-23p40, and TNFα in response to (D) L. gasseri 1SL4 and (E) L. casei BL23 as measured by multicolor flow cytometry. Each dot represents an individual subject. In the HIV+ group, open circles represent therapy-naïve patients, closed circles represent patients on HAART. Bars indicate median value. Bar graphs represent mean +/− SEM. P values determined using Mann Whitney U test, P values as indicated.