Effect of LipESP on LPS-, IFN-γ-, or IFN-γ/LPS-induced cytokine production by human monocytes.

Production of (a) IL-12p70, (b) IL-10 and (c) TNF-α were measured in monocytes supernatant by ELISA after 24 h of stimulation by LipESP in presence or absence of LPS (for IL-10 and TNF-α analysis) or after 12 h of priming with IFN-γ followed by 24 additional hours of stimulation by LipESP with or without LPS co-treatment (for IL-12 analysis). Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 9). * Statistically significant difference between non stimulated and LipESP-, LPS-, and IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated monocytes (p<0·05); ** Statistically significant difference between IFN-γ stimulated and LipESP/IFN-γ-co-treated monocytes (p<0·05) for IL-12p70 and between LPS-stimulated and LipESP-LPS-co-treated monocytes (p<0·05) for IL-10 and TNF-α; *** Statistically significant difference between IFN-γ/LPS stimulated and LipESP/IFN-γ/LPS-co-treated monocytes (p<0·05).