Changes in hunger, fullness, and satiety (mmVAS) after oral and intraduodenal treatments with pea protein and placebo.

Feelings of hunger did not change in lean subjects after between treatments (A), whereas in obese subjects, hunger decreased at 30 minutes after the oral pea protein ingestion (B). Feelings of fullness were increased after intraduodenal pea protein treatment for both lean (C) and obese (D) subjects. Satiety did not change over time when compared to placebo treatments for both lean (E) and obese (F) subjects. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM. * Significantly different from placebo treatment (p<0.05). # Significantly different from oral protein treatment (p<0.05).