ZBP1 restricts VZV-RHIMmut and VZV-RHIMKO spread in culture.

Empty vector or ZBP1 expressing HT-29s were inoculated with parental HT-29 cells either mock or infected with parent VZV (pOKA), VZV-RHIMmut or VZV-RHIMKO. z-VAD–fmk (25 μM) or necrosulfonamide (NSA; 1 μM) was added at the time of inoculation where indicated. (A) After 72 h cells were fixed and immunostained for VZV IE63 (red) to assess virus spread. Images are representative from at least 2 independent replicates. Scale bar indicates 500 μm. (B) The area of 18–20 plaques per virus (as indicated) was calculated using Zen 3.1 Blue edition (Zeiss), and statistical significance calculated using a one-way ANOVA. Line indicates mean and error bars represent standard error of the mean.