pcbi.1009587.g010.tif (598.95 kB)
Download file

Schematic diagram for the multi-scale modeling of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Download (598.95 kB)
posted on 24.11.2021, 18:34 by Shun Wang, Mengqian Hao, Zishu Pan, Jinzhi Lei, Xiufen Zou

a. Susceptible cells in normal tissue are infected by SARS-CoV-2. b. Cell states vary from normal to infected. Each normal cell becomes an infected cell with a probability of , and the infected cell spreads virus to the microenvironment and further infect other susceptible cells. c. The T cell response is triggered by infected cells that secrete cytokines (such as ILs, TNFs, IFNs, etc.). Naïve T cells are activated by cytokines and produce effector T cells to clear infected cells. Meanwhile, the above Eqs (1)–(17) represent the multi-scale model in the current study. This model includes viral dynamics, IFN response, and T cell response after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The viral dynamics and IFN response are coupled through the indexes of infected cells, and the T cell response and cytokines are connected by the number of infected cells. Cytokines are produced by both infected cells and effector T cells, promoting T cell exhaustion. Infected cells are removed with a probability of η(t) × dt. If an infected cell is cleared, a normal cell is generated to keep the total number of target cells unchanged. d. Normal tissue develops into abnormal tissue, and the severity is measured by the ratio of infected cells in the tissue.