Migration distance of MSCs over the duration of the experiment.

Blue dots in the collagen matrix indicate the locations of nuclei of MSCs (a) Control (b) SDF-1α condition. *p>0.05 (c) AMD3100-treated condition. *p>0.05 (d) Y-27632-treated condition. *p<0.05 (e) NSC23766-treated condition. *p<0.05 (f) RFP-expressing endothelial monolayer confluent to the collagen matrix. RFP-expressing ECs are distinguishable from MSCs. (g) Average migration distance of individual MSCs toward or away from the SDF-1α gradient. Graph bars from top to bottom; Control, SDF-1α, AMD3100, Y-27632, NSC23766. Purple and red fluorescence represents endothelial cells. The monolayer near the collagen matrix is shown in purple because of the higher population of ECs along the Z-axis. Orange triangle represents the presence of SDF-1α gradient. F-test was used to compare the average migration of each conditions with the control group. *p<0.05 represents significant variance difference while *p>0.05 represents no significant variance difference. One-way ANOVA analysis for finding inequality group showed *p<0.05.