Computational steps applied for wave intensity analysis.

From tonometrically measured radial pressure (A), aortic pressure (B) is obtained by a generalized transfer function (SphygmoCor). Aortic blood flow (C) is modelled from aortic pressure (ARCSolver) (or measured by Doppler ultrasound for model validation only). Pulse wave velocity c times blood density ρ is estimated from the slope of the approximately linear part of the PU-loop during early systole (D) to derive forward and backward wave intensity (E).