CS stimulus drives (via caudal bending of femur) protractor or retractor as observed in .
Caudal bending, i.e., activation of CS stimulus (below, blue) activates state Stance (highlighted white region), caudal relaxation activates Swing (highlighted grey). A) state: Forward walking, B) state: Backward walking. Abscissa: time (s), ordinate (mV). Dashed lines: simulation data for which no biological results are given. The three output channels are marked by the joints alpha, beta, and gamma.