A non-linear mixed effect model for innate immune response: In vivo kinetics of endotoxin and its induction of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 - Fig 5

Visual predictive checks for observations of (A) tumor necrosis factor alpha and (B) interleukin-6 from an external dataset (study G in Table 1), with the endotoxin infusion rate indicated for each panel. The red solid lines and circles correspond to the median observed concentration in the external dataset, while the dashed line correspond to the median simulated concentration based on the final model. The shaded area between the two solid lines correspond to the 95% confidence interval for the median simulation. The dashed horizontal line in (B) corresponds to the assay lower limit of quantification (200 ng/L), with observations below set to half of this limit for illustration.