Total Carbohydrate, Sugar, and Starch, and the Risks of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Among 8,855 Men and 10,753 Women*.
*Adjusted Hazard Ratios (with 95% CI) per SD of carbohydrates (30.1), sugar (29.5), and starch (22.9).†
Adjusted for age, smoking (never, past, current), packyears, education (low, middle, high), BMI, physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active), hypertension (yes, no), and OC use (ever, never).‡
Additional adjustment for total energy, and energy-adjusted nutrients: alcohol (≤10, 10–25, 25–50, >50 g/day), vitamin C, dietary fiber, and saturated, monounsaturated. §Model M3, additionally adjusted for plasma total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. ∥Models M3 and M4 for sugar and starch were mutually adjusted.