Patient cohorts and characteristics.

Age, T cell counts, viral loads, years diagnosed and years on HAART are expressed as mean values with the range indicated in parentheses. CD4+ T cell counts and plasma viral load are not applicable (N/A) for HIV-negative controls. Plasma viral load was under 50 HIV RNA copies/mL plasma in HIV-infected, HAART-treated group. (PI = protease inhibitor, NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, combination = PI+NNRTI). P values determined using ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparisons test (**P<0.01, ****P<0.001 compared to HIV-negative controls.

P<0.001 compared to HIV, therapy naïve.).