Immunophenotype of primary cultures derived from explanted valve allografts.

Legend: Percentage of antigen expression after normalization to counted nuclei. ND: not detectable.

Primary cultures extracted from explanted tissues at 15 months were characterized immunophenotypically for markers commonly expressed in inflammation (CD45), SMCs and/or VICs (OPN, MyHC-Apla1, Calponin, SM-MyHC and smoothelin), calcification (OC) and stemness (SSEA4, OCT4, CD90 and CD29).