Epas1 is an exome-wide outlier under spatially varying selection in P. maniculatus along altitudinal gradients.

A) Manhattan plot of PBS values for all SNPs (black dots) located within the last three exons of Epas1 (exon numbers provided above schematic). Exome-wide values for mean, top 1%, and top 0.1% percentile PBS values are shown, and three outlier SNPs in Epas1 are highlighted in orange (see key). Pairwise linkage disequilibrium estimates (measured with the squared correlation coefficient, r2) for each SNP pair are provided. B) Geographic variation in Thr755Met Epas1 allele frequency for 23 populations in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, USA. Pie charts are shaded according to frequency of high-altitude or low-altitude allele, with size indicating number of mice sampled (see key). C) Clinal variation in Thr755Met Epas1 allele frequency for 10 P. maniculatus populations sampled along a 4500 m altitudinal cline from the Great Plains of Nebraska to the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. In (B) and (C), Mt. Evans (ME) and Lincoln (LN) populations are labeled. Dashed box in (B) shows populations chosen for assessing clinal variation in (C). See S1 Table for details on sampling location and Epas1 allele frequencies.