Working model for the nematicidal action mechanism by HWY-4213.

Based on the primary screening results, we hypothesized that HWY-4213 kills the nematode B. xylophilus by inhibiting functions of certain calcium channel proteins as well as the UNC-9 protein in gap junctions, which could result in bursting of calcium ions. The exact mechanism of action involving this calcium channel blocking by HWY-4213 remains to be established.




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