Volcano plot illustrating statistical significance of sex-related differences (shown as negative log of the ANOVA P level, so that the most significant differences are on top) in relation to magnitude of mean differences (shown as log of the female/male expression ratio, so that genes expressed at higher levels in women have positive values and those expressed at higher levels in men have negative values).

The lower panel is a magnified version of part of the upper panel, excluding the very large differences for Y-chromosome genes and XIST, which are enclosed in red boxes in the upper panel. The three solid red circles in the lower panel represent the probe sets for the GRB10 gene transcript.