Validation of reference gene selection.

(A) Relative Expression levels of CHS1 in six developmental stages (B) Relative Expression levels of target gene, GSTs1, in midgut (MG), Malpighian tubules (MT), fatbodies (FB), Spermary (SP) (C) and different insecticides, cyhalothrin (EC1), acetamiprid (EC2), chlorantraniliprole (EC3), chlorpyrifos (EC4). NF1, using the single one best reference gene for normalization; NF (1–2), using two best reference genes; NF (1–3), using three best reference genes; NF (1–5) using four best reference genes; NF (12), using the least stable reference gene. Asterisks indicate significant difference of the expression of the target gene based on three biological replications. (P<0.05, t-test; n = 3).