V-ATPase, PPase activity assays and vacuolar pH measurements in <i>OsVHA</i><i>-</i><i>A</i> RNAi transgenic lines.

<p>(A) Vacuolar H<sup>+</sup>-ATPase activity and (B) V-PPase activity were determined in wild type (WT) and three <i>OsVHA-A</i> RNA interference lines (<i>OsV-5</i>, <i>OsV-11</i>, and <i>OsV-18</i>). (C) The images showing emission intensities of vacuoles from epidermal root cells loaded with BCECF AM. Results shown are representative. Scale bars  = 100 μM. (D) The vacuolar pH values calculated from (C). (E) V-ATPase proton-pumping measured by the quenching of ACMA fluorescence. Ten micrograms of tonoplast vesicles were applied to detect fluorescence density. Each bar represents three replications. Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences from WT at <i>P</i><0.05.</p>