The distribution in the representative organs after infusion of 1×106 MSCs through different administration routes.

(A–B) Renal retention of grafted MSCs. Under fluorescence microscopic observation, both the gross specimen and frozen sections showed that there were significantly more CM-Dil labeled MSCs (red) engrafted to the kidney in RA group compared with TV and CA group. (C) The distribution of MSCs in the other representative organs, including lung, spleen, liver and heart. In TV group, the majority of implanted cells accumulated in the lung. In CA group, the transplanted cells widely distributed to these representative organs. In RA group, few cells were detected in other organs.