Thapsigargin and high glucose and palmitic acid potentiate ER stress gene expression in hIAPP-INS1E cells.

<p>ER stress expression markers CHOP, ATF3 and sXBP1 were determined by real-time PCR from hIAPP-INS1E, rIAPP-INS1E and INS1E control cells cultured at A) 11 mM glucose B) 11 mM glucose exposed to 0.5 µM of thapsigargin for 8 hours or C) 25 mM of glucose (HG) with 400 µM palmitic acid (PA) for 24 hours. Results are normalized to untreated INS1E, rIAPP-INS1E or hIAPP-INS1E cells (dashed line) and expressed as mean ± S.E.M from five independent experiments. *<i>p</i><0.05 **<i>p</i><0.01 and ***<i>p</i><0.001 <i>vs</i>. rIAPP and <i><sup>##</sup>p</i><0.01, <i><sup>###</sup>p</i><0.001 <i>vs</i>. INS1E control. n.s., not significant.</p>