Temperature and probiotic treatments of recently metamorphosed midwife toads, A. obstetricans, influence skin mucosome function (a) but not induced skin peptide defenses (b).

(a) Mucosome function indicates B. dendrobatidis (Bd) viability after exposure to amphibian mucus quantified by green: red fluorescence. Significantly different subsets are indicated by letters above bars (Tukey post-hoc test). Bd zoospore viability was reduced after exposure to mucus from frogs treated with the bacterium F. johnsoniae and the fungus P. expansum, and zoospore viability was highest after exposure to mucus from toads previously exposed to Bd. (b) Skin peptide effectiveness against Bd did not differ significantly among treatments (ANOVA, F6 = 0.952, P = 0.466).