TNFα induces migration and invasion of HCT116 cells.

(A) HCT116 cells were allowed to migrate transwell chambers for 24 h in the presence or absence of TNFα (20 ng/ml). After 24 h, the migrated cells were fixed, stained, and photographed. Magnification, 100×. (B) The number of migrated cells. Data represent the average of three independent experiments. (C) After treatment with or without TNFα (20 ng/ml) for 48 h, HCT116 cells that had spread through the matrixgel and into the under-side of the filter were fixed, stained, and photographed. Magnification, 200×. (D) The number of invasive cells. Data represent the average of three independent experiments. *p<0.05 compared with control.