Stimulation of all three PPARs increased the peroxisome number and metabolic function in calvarial osteoblasts.

Osteoblasts were exposed to agonists and antagonists of PPARɑ (Cip, GW6471), of PPARß (GW0742, GSK0660), and PPARɣ (Tro, GW9662). Cell homogenates were analyzed for the protein level of catalase, PEX14, and PEX13 using ɑ-tubulin as housekeeping protein to ensure equal protein loading on the gel. Semiquantitative analysis of the integrated optical signal intensities of the proteins related to ɑ-tubulin with controls set to 1 are shown in numbers directly below the bands.