Simplified stratophenetic phylogeny based solely on fossil data (and thus not necessarily congruent with DNA-based phylogenies) showing the relationships between living species of Sphaeroidinella, Trilobatus n. gen., Orbulina, Globigerinoides, and Globoturborotalita (open circles) and their common ancestors (filled circles).

Stratigraphic ranges are shown as vertical grey bars and evolutionary relationships by horizontal dashed grey lines. The reconstruction is based on the new observations of the PPFWG for the Eocene to lower Miocene and [14] for the rest. This is not the complete clade: many fossil species (side-branches that are not ancestral to the modern species) in the genera Globoturborotalita, Trilobatus, and Globigerinoides have been omitted for clarity. The modern species Globigerinoides elongatus is omitted because most paleontologists lumped it (wrongly) with G. ruber prior to genetic studies. Also omitted is the modern Globigerinoides tenellus which has often been considered as closely related with G. rubescens but that relationship is uncertain. The modern species Trilobatus trilobus encompasses T. sacculifer which has a shorter stratigraphic range, are shown. Genera are shown as dashed panels; paraphyletic genera are shown encompassing their descendant genera. The evolution of supplementary apertures is shown as stars; this occurred independently three times in the origin of Trilobatus, Globigerinoides, and Sphaeroidinella. Fossil morphospecies are given as numbered circles: (1) Globoturborotalita bassriverensis; (2, 3) Globoturborotalita cancellata group; (4) Trilobatus primordius; (5) Trilobatus trilobus; (6) Trilobatus sacculifer; (7) Globigerinoidesella fistulosa; (8) Trilobatus bisphericus; (9) Trilobatus sicanus; (10) Praeorbulina glomerosa; (11) Orbulina universa; (12) Globoturborotalita brazieri; (13) Globoturborotalita woodi; (14) Sphaeroidinellopsis disjunctus; (15) Sphaeroidinellopsis seminulinus; (16) Sphaeroidinellopsis paenedehiscens; (17) Sphaeroidinella dehiscens; (18) Globoturborotalita decoraperta; (19) Globoturborotalita rubescens; (20) Globigerinoides subquadratus; (21) Globigerinoides altiaperturus; (22) Globigerinoides obliquus / extremus; (23) Globigerinoides conglobatus; (24) Globigerinoides ruber. PL = Pliocene, PT = Pleistocene, e = early, m = middle, l = late. Timescale of [13] and [30].