Respiration studies of hepatic mitochondria isolated from mice fed very low protein and carbohydrate, very high fat diets.

(A) Respiration rates in the basal leak condition (state 2), ADP-stimulated condition (state 3), F1F0-ATPase independent condition (state 4), and uncoupled condition in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-fed, VLP/C+-fed, and VLP/C--fed (for 6 weeks) mice using palmitoyl-L-carnitine and malate as substrates. n=4 mice/group. (B) Relative respiratory ratios of basal leak (state 2/state 3), respiratory control (RCR, state 3/state 4), and coupling control (CCR, state 4/uncoupled), derived from panel A. (C) Respiration rates in states 2-4 and while uncoupled in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-, VLP/C+, and VLP/C--fed mice that respired using the Complex II-electron donor substrate succinate in the presence of rotenone (Complex I activity inhibitor). n=9 mice/group. (D) Relative respiratory ratios of state 2/state 3, state 3/state 4, and state 4/uncoupled, derived from panel C. (E) Respiration rates in states 2-4 in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-, VLP/C+, and VLP/C--fed mice that respired using the Complex III-donor substrate duroquinol plus rotenone. n=9 mice/group. (F) Relative respiratory ratios of state 2/state 3, state 3/state 4, and state 4/uncoupled, derived from panel E. (G) Respiration rates in states 2-4 in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-, VLP/C+, and VLP/C--fed mice that respired using the Complex IV-donor substrate combination TMPD/ascorbate, plus rotenone. n=9 mice/group. (H) Relative respiratory ratios of state 2/state 3, state 3/state 4, and state 4/uncoupled, derived from panel G. Data are presented as means±SEM. *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01 by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc testing.