Representative patterns of active urinary ceruloplasmin and urinary progestagens in bred/no birth cycles for female giant pandas: suspected lost pregnancies based on ceruloplasmin.

The levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin in 2008 for SB437 (SNZP; Panel 5A) and 2001 for SB371 (SDZ; Panel 5B). Both animals were artificially inseminated. Panels 5C and D: The levels of urinary progestagens for SB437 in 2008 (5C) and for SB371 in 2001 (4D). Red diamonds represent the levels active urinary ceruloplasmin; Black circles represent urinary progestagen concentrations; Pg = Progestagen; PEs = Proestrus; Es = Estrus; Numerical numbers = weeks of the luteal phase. Variations in the x axis exist to accommodate variable concentrations and durations. Data are weekly means ± SEM; n = 6 reproductive cycles, representative cycles (n = 2) are presented herein. *Samples from cycles obtained from SB371 were analyzed blind, without prior knowledge of cycle outcome. Because urinary progestagen concentrations for SB371 were analyzed using a different antibody, caution must be taken when directly comparing progestagen data between SB371 and the other animals. However, the same trends were observed in the relationship between active ceruloplasmin and progestagens in urine using both antibodies.