Production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 healthy volunteers, of 18 patients with flu-like syndrome and of 31 patients infected by the H1N1 virus were stimulated with endotoxins (LPS), phytohemagglutin (PHA), and heat-killed isolates of Candida albicans, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (MRSA-PVL) and of penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Superscript “a” denotes statistically significant differences compared with healthy volunteers; superscript “b” denotes statistically significant differences compared with patients with flu-like syndrome.