Plot of drive nodes of real, rand-Degree and rand-ER network (a) before (nDreal, nDrand-Degree, nDrand-ER) and (b) after optimization by EOOC (nDreal(opt), nDrand-Degree(opt), nDrand-ER(opt)), and (c) the faction of critical, redundant and intermittent edge direction of 14 real networks.

Plot of drive nodes of real, rand-Degree and rand-ER network (a) before (

nD

real

,

nD

rand-Degree

,

nD

rand-ER

) and (b) after optimization by EOOC (

nD

real

(opt)

,

nD

rand-Degree

(opt)

,

nD

rand-ER

(opt)

), and (c) the faction of critical, redundant and intermittent edge direction of 14 real networks.