Plot of drive nodes of real, rand-Degree and rand-ER network (a) before (nDreal, nDrand-Degree, nDrand-ER) and (b) after optimization by EOOC (nDreal(opt), nDrand-Degree(opt), nDrand-ER(opt)), and (c) the faction of critical, redundant and intermittent edge direction of 14 real networks.

<p>Plot of drive nodes of real, rand-Degree and rand-ER network (a) before (</p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>n</mi><mi>D</mi></p><p><mi>r</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi></p><p></p><p></p><p></p>, <p></p><p></p><p><mi>n</mi><mi>D</mi></p><p><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo>-</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>e</mi></p><p></p><p></p><p></p>, <p></p><p></p><p><mi>n</mi><mi>D</mi></p><p><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo>-</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>R</mi></p><p></p><p></p><p></p>) and (b) after optimization by EOOC (<p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>n</mi><mi>D</mi></p><p><mi>r</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>l</mi></p><p></p><p><mo>(</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mo>)</mo></p><p></p><p></p><p></p>, <p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>n</mi><mi>D</mi></p><p><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo>-</mo><mi>D</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>g</mi><mi>r</mi><mi>e</mi><mi>e</mi></p><p></p><p><mo>(</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mo>)</mo></p><p></p><p></p><p></p>, <p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>n</mi><mi>D</mi></p><p><mi>r</mi><mi>a</mi><mi>n</mi><mi>d</mi><mo>-</mo><mi>E</mi><mi>R</mi></p><p></p><p><mo>(</mo><mi>o</mi><mi>p</mi><mi>t</mi><mo>)</mo></p><p></p><p></p><p></p>), and (c) the faction of critical, redundant and intermittent edge direction of 14 real networks.<p></p>