PA causes neuronal chromatin condensation in vitro.

Presence of neuronal chromatin condensation in vitro after PA treatment (10−4 – 10−3 M) compared to control (0). Upper panel: PA increases the number of neurons displaying nuclear chromatin condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. Lower panel: representative micrographs of HuC/HuD immunolabeled neurons (A–D) and Hoechst labeled nuclei (E–H) after control and PA (10−4 M – 10−3 M) treatment. Increasing concentrations of PA cause shrinkage of neuronal soma and nuclei and increase chromatin condensation (revealed as white spots in Hoechst stain). (A, E) control, (B, F) PA (10−4 M), (C, G) PA (4×10−4 M) and (D, H) PA (10−3 M). Data shown as mean ± SEM, *** p<0.001, n = 5, Bar represents 20 µm.