Nano-KAg elicited enhanced innate and suppressed regulatory response in a pre-challenge study.

Pigs were unvaccinated or vaccinated as indicated. MNC were immunostained to analyze the frequency of immune cells: (A) NK cells, (B) Dendritic cells, (C) γδ T cells, (D) Th/memory cells, (E) CD8+ T cells in lung MNC; and (H) γδ T cells and (I) Dendritic cells in PBMC. Harvested culture supernatants from restimulated MNC were analyzed for cytokines: (F) IL-6 and (G) IL-10 in lung MNC; (J) IL-10 in PBMC; (K) IFN-α in serum by ELISA. Each bar represents the average cytokine amounts from three pigs ± SEM. Asterisk represents the statistical significant difference (p<0.05) between Nano-KAg and K-Ag received pig groups.