Muller glia expresses and secretes proinflammatory mediators in response to live pathogen challenge.

2013-02-20T10:05:40Z (GMT) by Ashok Kumar Nazeem Shamsuddin

MIO-M1 cells were stimulated with S. aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria), and C. albicans (fungi) for 4 h. At the end of the incubation period, cells were used for RNA extraction followed by RT-PCR (A), whereas the culture supernatant was used for measurement of TNF-α (B), and IL-6 (C). The indicated statistical differences are comparisons of unstimulated (control) vs TLR agonist stimulated cells: *p<0.05 (one-way ANOVA).