Magnitude of shift (m) in elevational range margins of alpine species in Lhonakh and Lachen valleys in Sikkim during the last century.

(A) Shift in lower elevational range margin. (B) Shift in upper elevational range margin. Dark grey portion of the pie chart represents proportion of species with no upward shift in upper or lower range margins, whereas light grey represents species showing upward shifts in upper or lower range margins. Note that significant upward shifts were observed in lower range margins of the species.