Macrophage ER stress is increased in vitamin D deficiency.

ApoE−/− mice were assessed after vitamin D-sufficient (black) or –deficient (white) HFD. (A) Western blot and (B) quantification of ER stress protein expression (n = 4 per group) in unstimulated peritoneal macrophages. (C) Triple immunofluorescent staining of the aortic root of vitamin D –sufficient (top) or –deficient (bottom) for DAPI (blue), CHOP (red), and MOMA (green). Data expressed as mean ± SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p≤0.0001.

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