Lipoglycan increased production is associated with an enhancement of innate immune signaling.

A, B, E, F) NF-κB activation in HEK (A, E) and THP-1 (B, F) cells. C, D, G) IL-8 production by THP-1 (C, G) and human monocyte-derived dendritic (D) cells. Cells were incubated with bacteria at MOI of 1. In F and G, cells were pre-incubated for 30 min at 37°C before bacteria addition with various antibodies, anti-TLR2 and isotype controls, at a concentration of 5 µg/ml. The results are mean ± SD of triplicate wells and are representative of at least three separate experiments using independent bacterial cultures and different MOI. *, P<0.05; **, P<0.01; ***, P<0.001; ns, not significant. In A, B, C and D), P value is given vs pMV. n.i., not induced.