Intraoperative images of the 1st surgical procedure in patient 1.

Abbreviations: CS, Cholesteatoma sac; TM, Tympanic membrane; CTN, Chorda tympani nerve. (A) The cholesteatoma sac was attached to the CTN. (B) The section of the CTN was resected together with the cholesteatoma. (C) The tube was secured to the proximal and distal nerve ends with epineural 10-0 polypropylene monofilament sutures. (D) Intraoperative view after brigde of a PGA-collagen tube.