Interactive effects of plant defense and predation risk on the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (mean ± SE) for (a) T. ni, (b) L. decemlineata, and (c) M. sexta.

Plant defense was manipulated using three plant types varying in their jasmonate signaling pathway with ‘jasmonate insensitive’ expressing low resistance, ‘wild-type’ the intermediate phenotype, and ‘jasmonate overexpress’ displaying high resistance. White bars are the predator-free control, and grey bars are labeled ‘PR’ to denote the ‘predation risk’ treatment (i.e., presence of a non-lethal stink bug). Statistical outcome for the main factors, covariate (weight), and interaction term are displayed in the upper right corner of each panel; asterisks correspond to the level of significance: * = P<0.05, ** = P<0.01, *** = P<0.001. N = 10–13, 11–13, and 17–21 replicates per treatment combination for T. ni, L. decemlineata, and M. sexta, respectively.