Influence of choline restriction in integrated hepatic mitochondrial fatty acyl-CoA metabolism.
Red text and red arrows highlight hepatic processes known to be impaired by administration of experimental choline deficient diets. Unlike previous observations using lower fat choline deficient versus replete formulations, in this study, choline repletion in ~90% kcal fat diets did not alter triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion as VLDL. However, choline restriction in a ~90% kcal fat diet was associated with mitochondrial structural and functional abnormalities, which were linked to liver fat accumulation and injury. CPT1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1; TCAC, tricarboxylic acid cycle; ETC, electron transport chain; ATP, adenosine triphosphate.