Hormone expression in Pax4-deficient intestine.

(A) Real time RT-PCR analyses of various intestinal hormones mRNAs in Pax4-deficient and control small intestine and colon at 2 days postpartum (n = 4). Gip, Nts, Gast, Sct and Tph1 mRNA levels decrease significantly in Pax4 mutant small intestine, Glp1 and Ghrl expressions increase in both the small intestine and colon. (B) Quantification of GLP1+ cells in Pax4+/+ (n = 3) and Pax4−/− P1 ileum (n = 3). GLP1-expressing cells are more abundant in Pax4 mutant ileum. Student's T-test *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.