Growth of WT (CH1018, A) and GlmS (CKS1001, B) mutant E. coli in the minimal media with supplementations.

∼5×105 CFU/ml of bacteria were inoculated in the M9 media containing indicated supplementations, grown for 24 hrs at 37°C, and total numbers of bacteria were enumerated on minimal media plates containing 500 mM GlcNAc. Final concentrations of each organ extracts were 0.2 mg/ml.