Grand mean of the parameters associated with neuromuscular changes in under and over loading collected in four gravity levels (lunar (LG, grey background), Martian (MG, grey), normal gravity (NG, white) and hypergravity (HG, grey)) as well as during simulated normal gravity (S_NG, white): Co-contraction index (CCI) for the antagonistic muscle groups SOL_TA, BF_VL and RF_GL, Hmax/Mmax-ratios and the iEMG 100ms prior to the H-reflex stimulation for SOL.

Data are normalized to the respective NG value. For NG, both the absolute values and the relative values are displayed. Load variation has a statistically significant influence on all parameters (P<0.05, * symbol denotes a statistically significant difference compared to the 1g condition) despite the pre-activation of SOL. Statistical equivalence ≈ between NG and S_NG conditions values could be observed for all parameters despite for CCI BF_VL.