Forest plot of 5-year overall survival rates for RCTs and non-RCTs.

a: RCTs; b: non-RCTs. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the hazard ratio for each study is represented by a horizontal line and the point estimate is represented by a square. The size of the square corresponds to the weight of the study in the meta-analysis. The 95% CI for pooled estimates is represented by a diamond. Data for a fixed-effects model are shown as there was no statistical heterogeneity. df = degrees of freedom; I2 = percentage of the total variation across studies due to heterogeneity; IV = Inverse Variance; SE = standard error; Z = test of overall treatment effect.



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