Expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes analyzed using geNorm for qRT-PCR in Yesso scallop tissues (A, B) and embryos/larvae (C, D).

The expression stability (M) of each gene was evaluated during stepwise exclusion of the least stable gene (A, C). The optimal number of reference genes required for accurate normalization was determined through calculating pairwise variation Vn/Vn+1(B, D).